Golden camels in the mausoleum of the first emperor of Qin Dynasty
The Mausoleum Museum of the first emperor of Qin revealed Wednesday that it carried out a detailed archaeological investigation and exploration of the mausoleum on the west side of the outer city of the mausoleum. More than 20 ancient tombs, 120 ash pits, 4 pottery kilns and 4 ancient river beds were found. 14 burial pits have been found. A tomb unearthed the earliest single gold camel in China. (source: China new Internet)
Among them, there are 9 large tombs, 4 in the East are in the middle shape, close to the mausoleum of the first emperor of Qin; 5 in the West are in the shape of a, slightly away from the mausoleum of Qin. At the same time, a circle of complete trenches was found around the three A-shaped tombs in the westernmost group, in the shape of “eyes”. This is the unique, largest and most complete tomb with trenches found in the Qin mausoleum area.
From the point of view of location, the East-West arrangement of these tombs has certain regularity, which is formed by intentional planning and arrangement, and its era should be the same period. The eastern part of a medium shaped tomb is only more than 100 meters away from the outer city of the Qin mausoleum, which indicates that the owner of the tomb is closely related to the first emperor of Qin. It is suspected that it is a group of large-scale burial tombs on the west side of the first emperor of Qin’s mausoleum. At that time, it was initially believed that the time was about the late Warring States Han Dynasty.
At present, a large-scale tomb excavated is about 440 meters away from the west side of the outer city of the mausoleum of the first emperor of Qin Dynasty, with a plane of “middle” shape; there are three rectangular burial pits on both sides of the North-South tomb path; there are discontinuous ditch remains on the South and west side of the tomb. The natural river bed in the East and the man-made trenches in the West and South surrounded the tombs, forming a relatively complete independent cemetery.
The opening of the tomb is under the ploughing soil layer, and the southern tomb path and chamber break the black ridge soil layer widely distributed in the Qinling area. The central part of the tomb collapsed seriously. In the process of collapse, the steps of the tomb wall are less affected, and the rammed earth layer in the tomb is broken at the edge of the steps. According to the corresponding relationship of Rammed Soil layer, the depth of Rammed Soil Layer in the center of the tomb is larger than that of the opening soil layer. It can be confirmed that there is earth sealing in the tomb, and the height is not less than 7 meters. Five robber holes were found in the tomb, three of which entered the tomb.
The bottom of the tomb covers an area of 116 square meters, with a two-story platform and a height of 3.8 meters. The bottom of the original tomb is paved with charcoal, with keel on it, floor on the keel, coffin on the floor, and charcoal with thickness of no less than 40 cm on it. The south is thick and the north is thin, and then it is backfilled with coarse ramming, and the upper part is fine ramming. After the collapse, the thickness of the deposit below the charcoal layer of the tomb is 0.2-0.8m. The coffin is located in the middle and south of the tomb, surrounded by ambulatory, with side boxes on the outside, where a large number of pottery, bronze, jade and a small number of gold and silver, iron and so on. The central coffin is still under further cleaning.
According to reports, according to the location of the tomb, the shape of the tomb and the unearthed objects, it can be inferred that the tomb age belongs to the Qin Dynasty after the unification of the Qin Dynasty. The tombs in the west of the mausoleum of the first emperor of Qin should belong to a planned high-level burial area for nobles in the mausoleum of the first emperor of Qin. Most of the tombs are surrounded by ditches and natural rivers, forming a relatively independent cemetery. The owner of the tombs is closely related to the first emperor of Qin.
The tomb is the largest, the highest and the best preserved large-scale tomb in the Qin Dynasty. It fills in the blank of the tomb Archaeology of the high-ranking nobles in the Qin Dynasty, and is another important harvest of the archaeology of the first emperor mausoleum.
The unearthed Golden Camel is the earliest single Golden Camel in China. These unearthed artifacts not only provided an important basis for the cultural exchange between China and the west before the opening of the Silk Road in the Han Dynasty, but also provided important material for the study of politics, economy, military affairs, science and technology, culture, etc. in the Qin Dynasty.